George Washington’s Farewell Address

One of the greatest speeches ever given on U.S. soil was President George Washington’s Farewell Address, given in 1796.  The speech was written by Washington, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton.

It covers many themes but two of those themes are particularly relevant to today — the inherent problems in political parties involvement in foreign entanglements. 

It was that second topic that really animated much of the speech, Washington’s advice to future generations of Americans before retiring from public life. Washington warned America to “steer clear of permanent alliance with any portion of the foreign world.”  

President George Washington’s Farewell Address — 1796

Friends and Fellow Citizens:

The period for a new election of a citizen to administer the executive government of the United States being not far distant, and the time actually arrived when your thoughts must be employed in designating the person who is to be clothed with that important trust, it appears to me proper, especially as it may conduce to a more distinct expression of the public voice, that I should now apprise you of the resolution I have formed, to decline being considered among the number of those out of whom a choice is to be made.

I beg you, at the same time, to do me the justice to be assured that this resolution has not been taken without a strict regard to all the considerations appertaining to the relation which binds a dutiful citizen to his country; and that in withdrawing the tender of service, which silence in my situation might imply, I am influenced by no diminution of zeal for your future interest, no deficiency of grateful respect for your past kindness, but am supported by a full conviction that the step is compatible with both.

The acceptance of, and continuance hitherto in, the office to which your suffrages have twice called me have been a uniform sacrifice of inclination to the opinion of duty and to a deference for what appeared to be your desire. I constantly hoped that it would have been much earlier in my power, consistently with motives which I was not at liberty to disregard, to return to that retirement from which I had been reluctantly drawn. The strength of my inclination to do this, previous to the last election, had even led to the preparation of an address to declare it to you; but mature reflection on the then perplexed and critical posture of our affairs with foreign nations, and the unanimous advice of persons entitled to my confidence, impelled me to abandon the idea.

I rejoice that the state of your concerns, external as well as internal, no longer renders the pursuit of inclination incompatible with the sentiment of duty or propriety, and am persuaded, whatever partiality may be retained for my services, that, in the present circumstances of our country, you will not disapprove my determination to retire.

The impressions with which I first undertook the arduous trust were explained on the proper occasion. In the discharge of this trust, I will only say that I have, with good intentions, contributed towards the organization and administration of the government the best exertions of which a very fallible judgment was capable. Not unconscious in the outset of the inferiority of my qualifications, experience in my own eyes, perhaps still more in the eyes of others, has strengthened the motives to diffidence of myself; and every day the increasing weight of years admonishes me more and more that the shade of retirement is as necessary to me as it will be welcome. Satisfied that if any circumstances have given peculiar value to my services, they were temporary, I have the consolation to believe that, while choice and prudence invite me to quit the political scene, patriotism does not forbid it.

In looking forward to the moment which is intended to terminate the career of my public life, my feelings do not permit me to suspend the deep acknowledgment of that debt of gratitude which I owe to my beloved country for the many honors it has conferred upon me; still more for the steadfast confidence with which it has supported me; and for the opportunities I have thence enjoyed of manifesting my inviolable attachment, by services faithful and persevering, though in usefulness unequal to my zeal. If benefits have resulted to our country from these services, let it always be remembered to your praise, and as an instructive example in our annals, that under circumstances in which the passions, agitated in every direction, were liable to mislead, amidst appearances sometimes dubious, vicissitudes of fortune often discouraging, in situations in which not unfrequently want of success has countenanced the spirit of criticism, the constancy of your support was the essential prop of the efforts, and a guarantee of the plans by which they were effected. Profoundly penetrated with this idea, I shall carry it with me to my grave, as a strong incitement to unceasing vows that heaven may continue to you the choicest tokens of its beneficence; that your union and brotherly affection may be perpetual; that the free Constitution, which is the work of your hands, may be sacredly maintained; that its administration in every department may be stamped with wisdom and virtue; that, in fine, the happiness of the people of these States, under the auspices of liberty, may be made complete by so careful a preservation and so prudent a use of this blessing as will acquire to them the glory of recommending it to the applause, the affection, and adoption of every nation which is yet a stranger to it.

Here, perhaps, I ought to stop. But a solicitude for your welfare, which cannot end but with my life, and the apprehension of danger, natural to that solicitude, urge me, on an occasion like the present, to offer to your solemn contemplation, and to recommend to your frequent review, some sentiments which are the result of much reflection, of no inconsiderable observation, and which appear to me all-important to the permanency of your felicity as a people. These will be offered to you with the more freedom, as you can only see in them the disinterested warnings of a parting friend, who can possibly have no personal motive to bias his counsel. Nor can I forget, as an encouragement to it, your indulgent reception of my sentiments on a former and not dissimilar occasion.

Interwoven as is the love of liberty with every ligament of your hearts, no recommendation of mine is necessary to fortify or confirm the attachment.

The unity of government which constitutes you one people is also now dear to you. It is justly so, for it is a main pillar in the edifice of your real independence, the support of your tranquility at home, your peace abroad; of your safety; of your prosperity; of that very liberty which you so highly prize. But as it is easy to foresee that, from different causes and from different quarters, much pains will be taken, many artifices employed to weaken in your minds the conviction of this truth; as this is the point in your political fortress against which the batteries of internal and external enemies will be most constantly and actively (though often covertly and insidiously) directed, it is of infinite moment that you should properly estimate the immense value of your national union to your collective and individual happiness; that you should cherish a cordial, habitual, and immovable attachment to it; accustoming yourselves to think and speak of it as of the palladium of your political safety and prosperity; watching for its preservation with jealous anxiety; discountenancing whatever may suggest even a suspicion that it can in any event be abandoned; and indignantly frowning upon the first dawning of every attempt to alienate any portion of our country from the rest, or to enfeeble the sacred ties which now link together the various parts.

For this you have every inducement of sympathy and interest. Citizens, by birth or choice, of a common country, that country has a right to concentrate your affections. The name of American, which belongs to you in your national capacity, must always exalt the just pride of patriotism more than any appellation derived from local discriminations. With slight shades of difference, you have the same religion, manners, habits, and political principles. You have in a common cause fought and triumphed together; the independence and liberty you possess are the work of joint counsels, and joint efforts of common dangers, sufferings, and successes.

But these considerations, however powerfully they address themselves to your sensibility, are greatly outweighed by those which apply more immediately to your interest. Here every portion of our country finds the most commanding motives for carefully guarding and preserving the union of the whole.

The North, in an unrestrained intercourse with the South, protected by the equal laws of a common government, finds in the productions of the latter great additional resources of maritime and commercial enterprise and precious materials of manufacturing industry. The South, in the same intercourse, benefiting by the agency of the North, sees its agriculture grow and its commerce expand. Turning partly into its own channels the seamen of the North, it finds its particular navigation invigorated; and, while it contributes, in different ways, to nourish and increase the general mass of the national navigation, it looks forward to the protection of a maritime strength, to which itself is unequally adapted. The East, in a like intercourse with the West, already finds, and in the progressive improvement of interior communications by land and water, will more and more find a valuable vent for the commodities which it brings from abroad, or manufactures at home. The West derives from the East supplies requisite to its growth and comfort, and, what is perhaps of still greater consequence, it must of necessity owe the secure enjoyment of indispensable outlets for its own productions to the weight, influence, and the future maritime strength of the Atlantic side of the Union, directed by an indissoluble community of interest as one nation. Any other tenure by which the West can hold this essential advantage, whether derived from its own separate strength, or from an apostate and unnatural connection with any foreign power, must be intrinsically precarious.

While, then, every part of our country thus feels an immediate and particular interest in union, all the parts combined cannot fail to find in the united mass of means and efforts greater strength, greater resource, proportionably greater security from external danger, a less frequent interruption of their peace by foreign nations; and, what is of inestimable value, they must derive from union an exemption from those broils and wars between themselves, which so frequently afflict neighboring countries not tied together by the same governments, which their own rival ships alone would be sufficient to produce, but which opposite foreign alliances, attachments, and intrigues would stimulate and embitter. Hence, likewise, they will avoid the necessity of those overgrown military establishments which, under any form of government, are inauspicious to liberty, and which are to be regarded as particularly hostile to republican liberty. In this sense it is that your union ought to be considered as a main prop of your liberty, and that the love of the one ought to endear to you the preservation of the other.

These considerations speak a persuasive language to every reflecting and virtuous mind, and exhibit the continuance of the Union as a primary object of patriotic desire. Is there a doubt whether a common government can embrace so large a sphere? Let experience solve it. To listen to mere speculation in such a case were criminal. We are authorized to hope that a proper organization of the whole with the auxiliary agency of governments for the respective subdivisions, will afford a happy issue to the experiment. It is well worth a fair and full experiment. With such powerful and obvious motives to union, affecting all parts of our country, while experience shall not have demonstrated its impracticability, there will always be reason to distrust the patriotism of those who in any quarter may endeavor to weaken its bands.

In contemplating the causes which may disturb our Union, it occurs as matter of serious concern that any ground should have been furnished for characterizing parties by geographical discriminations, Northern and Southern, Atlantic and Western; whence designing men may endeavor to excite a belief that there is a real difference of local interests and views. One of the expedients of party to acquire influence within particular districts is to misrepresent the opinions and aims of other districts. You cannot shield yourselves too much against the jealousies and heartburnings which spring from these misrepresentations; they tend to render alien to each other those who ought to be bound together by fraternal affection. The inhabitants of our Western country have lately had a useful lesson on this head; they have seen, in the negotiation by the Executive, and in the unanimous ratification by the Senate, of the treaty with Spain, and in the universal satisfaction at that event, throughout the United States, a decisive proof how unfounded were the suspicions propagated among them of a policy in the General Government and in the Atlantic States unfriendly to their interests in regard to the Mississippi; they have been witnesses to the formation of two treaties, that with Great Britain, and that with Spain, which secure to them everything they could desire, in respect to our foreign relations, towards confirming their prosperity. Will it not be their wisdom to rely for the preservation of these advantages on the Union by which they were procured ? Will they not henceforth be deaf to those advisers, if such there are, who would sever them from their brethren and connect them with aliens?

To the efficacy and permanency of your Union, a government for the whole is indispensable. No alliance, however strict, between the parts can be an adequate substitute; they must inevitably experience the infractions and interruptions which all alliances in all times have experienced. Sensible of this momentous truth, you have improved upon your first essay, by the adoption of a constitution of government better calculated than your former for an intimate union, and for the efficacious management of your common concerns. This government, the offspring of our own choice, uninfluenced and unawed, adopted upon full investigation and mature deliberation, completely free in its principles, in the distribution of its powers, uniting security with energy, and containing within itself a provision for its own amendment, has a just claim to your confidence and your support. Respect for its authority, compliance with its laws, acquiescence in its measures, are duties enjoined by the fundamental maxims of true liberty. The basis of our political systems is the right of the people to make and to alter their constitutions of government. But the Constitution which at any time exists, till changed by an explicit and authentic act of the whole people, is sacredly obligatory upon all. The very idea of the power and the right of the people to establish government presupposes the duty of every individual to obey the established government.

All obstructions to the execution of the laws, all combinations and associations, under whatever plausible character, with the real design to direct, control, counteract, or awe the regular deliberation and action of the constituted authorities, are destructive of this fundamental principle, and of fatal tendency. They serve to organize faction, to give it an artificial and extraordinary force; to put, in the place of the delegated will of the nation the will of a party, often a small but artful and enterprising minority of the community; and, according to the alternate triumphs of different parties, to make the public administration the mirror of the ill-concerted and incongruous projects of faction, rather than the organ of consistent and wholesome plans digested by common counsels and modified by mutual interests.

However combinations or associations of the above description may now and then answer popular ends, they are likely, in the course of time and things, to become potent engines, by which cunning, ambitious, and unprincipled men will be enabled to subvert the power of the people and to usurp for themselves the reins of government, destroying afterwards the very engines which have lifted them to unjust dominion.

Towards the preservation of your government, and the permanency of your present happy state, it is requisite, not only that you steadily discountenance irregular oppositions to its acknowledged authority, but also that you resist with care the spirit of innovation upon its principles, however specious the pretexts. One method of assault may be to effect, in the forms of the Constitution, alterations which will impair the energy of the system, and thus to undermine what cannot be directly overthrown. In all the changes to which you may be invited, remember that time and habit are at least as necessary to fix the true character of governments as of other human institutions; that experience is the surest standard by which to test the real tendency of the existing constitution of a country; that facility in changes, upon the credit of mere hypothesis and opinion, exposes to perpetual change, from the endless variety of hypothesis and opinion; and remember, especially, that for the efficient management of your common interests, in a country so extensive as ours, a government of as much vigor as is consistent with the perfect security of liberty is indispensable. Liberty itself will find in such a government, with powers properly distributed and adjusted, its surest guardian. It is, indeed, little else than a name, where the government is too feeble to withstand the enterprises of faction, to confine each member of the society within the limits prescribed by the laws, and to maintain all in the secure and tranquil enjoyment of the rights of person and property.

I have already intimated to you the danger of parties in the State, with particular reference to the founding of them on geographical discriminations. Let me now take a more comprehensive view, and warn you in the most solemn manner against the baneful effects of the spirit of party generally.

This spirit, unfortunately, is inseparable from our nature, having its root in the strongest passions of the human mind. It exists under different shapes in all governments, more or less stifled, controlled, or repressed; but, in those of the popular form, it is seen in its greatest rankness, and is truly their worst enemy.

The alternate domination of one faction over another, sharpened by the spirit of revenge, natural to party dissension, which in different ages and countries has perpetrated the most horrid enormities, is itself a frightful despotism. But this leads at length to a more formal and permanent despotism. The disorders and miseries which result gradually incline the minds of men to seek security and repose in the absolute power of an individual; and sooner or later the chief of some prevailing faction, more able or more fortunate than his competitors, turns this disposition to the purposes of his own elevation, on the ruins of public liberty.

Without looking forward to an extremity of this kind (which nevertheless ought not to be entirely out of sight), the common and continual mischiefs of the spirit of party are sufficient to make it the interest and duty of a wise people to discourage and restrain it.

It serves always to distract the public councils and enfeeble the public administration. It agitates the community with ill-founded jealousies and false alarms, kindles the animosity of one part against another, foments occasionally riot and insurrection. It opens the door to foreign influence and corruption, which finds a facilitated access to the government itself through the channels of party passions. Thus the policy and the will of one country are subjected to the policy and will of another.

There is an opinion that parties in free countries are useful checks upon the administration of the government and serve to keep alive the spirit of liberty. This within certain limits is probably true; and in governments of a monarchical cast, patriotism may look with indulgence, if not with favor, upon the spirit of party. But in those of the popular character, in governments purely elective, it is a spirit not to be encouraged. From their natural tendency, it is certain there will always be enough of that spirit for every salutary purpose. And there being constant danger of excess, the effort ought to be by force of public opinion, to mitigate and assuage it. A fire not to be quenched, it demands a uniform vigilance to prevent its bursting into a flame, lest, instead of warming, it should consume.

It is important, likewise, that the habits of thinking in a free country should inspire caution in those entrusted with its administration, to confine themselves within their respective constitutional spheres, avoiding in the exercise of the powers of one department to encroach upon another. The spirit of encroachment tends to consolidate the powers of all the departments in one, and thus to create, whatever the form of government, a real despotism. A just estimate of that love of power, and proneness to abuse it, which predominates in the human heart, is sufficient to satisfy us of the truth of this position. The necessity of reciprocal checks in the exercise of political power, by dividing and distributing it into different depositaries, and constituting each the guardian of the public weal against invasions by the others, has been evinced by experiments ancient and modern; some of them in our country and under our own eyes. To preserve them must be as necessary as to institute them. If, in the opinion of the people, the distribution or modification of the constitutional powers be in any particular wrong, let it be corrected by an amendment in the way which the Constitution designates. But let there be no change by usurpation; for though this, in one instance, may be the instrument of good, it is the customary weapon by which free governments are destroyed. The precedent must always greatly overbalance in permanent evil any partial or transient benefit, which the use can at any time yield.

Of all the dispositions and habits which lead to political prosperity, religion and morality are indispensable supports. In vain would that man claim the tribute of patriotism, who should labor to subvert these great pillars of human happiness, these firmest props of the duties of men and citizens. The mere politician, equally with the pious man, ought to respect and to cherish them. A volume could not trace all their connections with private and public felicity. Let it simply be asked: Where is the security for property, for reputation, for life, if the sense of religious obligation desert the oaths which are the instruments of investigation in courts of justice ? And let us with caution indulge the supposition that morality can be maintained without religion. Whatever may be conceded to the influence of refined education on minds of peculiar structure, reason and experience both forbid us to expect that national morality can prevail in exclusion of religious principle.

It is substantially true that virtue or morality is a necessary spring of popular government. The rule, indeed, extends with more or less force to every species of free government. Who that is a sincere friend to it can look with indifference upon attempts to shake the foundation of the fabric?

Promote then, as an object of primary importance, institutions for the general diffusion of knowledge. In proportion as the structure of a government gives force to public opinion, it is essential that public opinion should be enlightened.

As a very important source of strength and security, cherish public credit. One method of preserving it is to use it as sparingly as possible, avoiding occasions of expense by cultivating peace, but remembering also that timely disbursements to prepare for danger frequently prevent much greater disbursements to repel it, avoiding likewise the accumulation of debt, not only by shunning occasions of expense, but by vigorous exertion in time of peace to discharge the debts which unavoidable wars may have occasioned, not ungenerously throwing upon posterity the burden which we ourselves ought to bear. The execution of these maxims belongs to your representatives, but it is necessary that public opinion should co-operate. To facilitate to them the performance of their duty, it is essential that you should practically bear in mind that towards the payment of debts there must be revenue; that to have revenue there must be taxes; that no taxes can be devised which are not more or less inconvenient and unpleasant; that the intrinsic embarrassment, inseparable from the selection of the proper objects (which is always a choice of difficulties), ought to be a decisive motive for a candid construction of the conduct of the government in making it, and for a spirit of acquiescence in the measures for obtaining revenue, which the public exigencies may at any time dictate.

Observe good faith and justice towards all nations; cultivate peace and harmony with all. Religion and morality enjoin this conduct; and can it be, that good policy does not equally enjoin it 7 It will be worthy of a free, enlightened, and at no distant period, a great nation, to give to mankind the magnanimous and too novel example of a people always guided by an exalted justice and benevolence. Who can doubt that, in the course of time and things, the fruits of such a plan would richly repay any temporary advantages which might be lost by a steady adherence to it ? Can it be that Providence has not connected the permanent felicity of a nation with its virtue ? The experiment, at least, is recommended by every sentiment which ennobles human nature. Alas! is it rendered impossible by its vices?

In the execution of such a plan, nothing is more essential than that permanent, inveterate antipathies against particular nations, and passionate attachments for others, should be excluded; and that, in place of them, just and amicable feelings towards all should be cultivated. The nation which indulges towards another a habitual hatred or a habitual fondness is in some degree a slave. It is a slave to its animosity or to its affection, either of which is sufficient to lead it astray from its duty and its interest. Antipathy in one nation against another disposes each more readily to offer insult and injury, to lay hold of slight causes of umbrage, and to be haughty and intractable, when accidental or trifling occasions of dispute occur. Hence, frequent collisions, obstinate, envenomed, and bloody contests. The nation, prompted by ill-will and resentment, sometimes impels to war the government, contrary to the best calculations of policy. The government sometimes participates in the national propensity, and adopts through passion what reason would reject; at other times it makes the animosity of the nation subservient to projects of hostility instigated by pride, ambition, and other sinister and pernicious motives. The peace often, sometimes perhaps the liberty, of nations, has been the victim.

So likewise, a passionate attachment of one nation for another produces a variety of evils. Sympathy for the favorite nation, facilitating the illusion of an imaginary common interest in cases where no real common interest exists, and infusing into one the enmities of the other, betrays the former into a participation in the quarrels and wars of the latter without adequate inducement or justification. It leads also to concessions to the favorite nation of privileges denied to others which is apt doubly to injure the nation making the concessions; by unnecessarily parting with what ought to have been retained, and by exciting jealousy, ill-will, and a disposition to retaliate, in the parties from whom equal privileges are withheld. And it gives to ambitious, corrupted, or deluded citizens (who devote themselves to the favorite nation), facility to betray or sacrifice the interests of their own country, without odium, sometimes even with popularity; gilding, with the appearances of a virtuous sense of obligation, a commendable deference for public opinion, or a laudable zeal for public good, the base or foolish compliances of ambition, corruption, or infatuation.

As avenues to foreign influence in innumerable ways, such attachments are particularly alarming to the truly enlightened and independent patriot. How many opportunities do they afford to tamper with domestic factions, to practice the arts of seduction, to mislead public opinion, to influence or awe the public councils 7 Such an attachment of a small or weak towards a great and powerful nation dooms the former to be the satellite of the latter.

Against the insidious wiles of foreign influence (I conjure you to believe me, fellow-citizens) the jealousy of a free people ought to be constantly awake, since history and experience prove that foreign influence is one of the most baneful foes of republican government. But that jealousy to be useful must be impartial; else it becomes the instrument of the very influence to be avoided, instead of a defense against it. Excessive partiality for one foreign nation and excessive dislike of another cause those whom they actuate to see danger only on one side, and serve to veil and even second the arts of influence on the other. Real patriots who may resist the intrigues of the favorite are liable to become suspected and odious, while its tools and dupes usurp the applause and confidence of the people, to surrender their interests.

The great rule of conduct for us in regard to foreign nations is in extending our commercial relations, to have with them as little political connection as possible. So far as we have already formed engagements, let them be fulfilled with perfect good faith. Here let us stop. Europe has a set of primary interests which to us have none; or a very remote relation. Hence she must be engaged in frequent controversies, the causes of which are essentially foreign to our concerns. Hence, therefore, it must be unwise in us to implicate ourselves by artificial ties in the ordinary vicissitudes of her politics, or the ordinary combinations and collisions of her friendships or enmities.

Our detached and distant situation invites and enables us to pursue a different course. If we remain one people under an efficient government. the period is not far off when we may defy material injury from external annoyance; when we may take such an attitude as will cause the neutrality we may at any time resolve upon to be scrupulously respected; when belligerent nations, under the impossibility of making acquisitions upon us, will not lightly hazard the giving us provocation; when we may choose peace or war, as our interest, guided by justice, shall counsel.

Why forego the advantages of so peculiar a situation? Why quit our own to stand upon foreign ground? Why, by interweaving our destiny with that of any part of Europe, entangle our peace and prosperity in the toils of European ambition, rivalship, interest, humor or caprice?

It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world; so far, I mean, as we are now at liberty to do it; for let me not be understood as capable of patronizing infidelity to existing engagements. I hold the maxim no less applicable to public than to private affairs, that honesty is always the best policy. I repeat it, therefore, let those engagements be observed in their genuine sense. But, in my opinion, it is unnecessary and would be unwise to extend them.

Taking care always to keep ourselves by suitable establishments on a respectable defensive posture, we may safely trust to temporary alliances for extraordinary emergencies.

Harmony, liberal intercourse with all nations, are recommended by policy, humanity, and interest. But even our commercial policy should hold an equal and impartial hand; neither seeking nor granting exclusive favors or preferences; consulting the natural course of things; diffusing and diversifying by gentle means the streams of commerce, but forcing nothing; establishing (with powers so disposed, in order to give trade a stable course, to define the rights of our merchants, and to enable the government to support them) conventional rules of intercourse, the best that present circumstances and mutual opinion will permit, but temporary, and liable to be from time to time abandoned or varied, as experience and circumstances shall dictate; constantly keeping in view that it is folly in one nation to look for disinterested favors from another; that it must pay with a portion of its independence for whatever it may accept under that character; that, by such acceptance, it may place itself in the condition of having given equivalents for nominal favors, and yet of being reproached with ingratitude for not giving more. There can be no greater error than to expect or calculate upon real favors from nation to nation. It is an illusion, which experience must cure, which a just pride ought to discard.

In offering to you, my countrymen, these counsels of an old and affectionate friend, I dare not hope they will make the strong and lasting impression I could wish; that they will control the usual current of the passions, or prevent our nation from running the course which has hitherto marked the destiny of nations. But, if I may even flatter myself that they may be productive of some partial benefit, some occasional good; that they may now and then recur to moderate the fury of party spirit, to warn against the mischiefs of foreign intrigue, to guard against the impostures of pretended patriotism; this hope will be a full recompense for the solicitude for your welfare, by which they have been dictated.

How far in the discharge of my official duties I have been guided by the principles which have been delineated, the public records and other evidences of my conduct must witness to you and to the world. To myself, the assurance of my own conscience is, that I have at least believed myself to be guided by them.

In relation to the still subsisting war in Europe, my proclamation of the twenty-second of April, I793, is the index of my plan. Sanctioned by your approving voice, and by that of your representatives in both houses of Congress, the spirit of that measure has continually governed me, uninfluenced by any attempts to deter or divert me from it.

After deliberate examination, with the aid of the best lights I could obtain, I was well satisfied that our country, under all the circumstances of the case, had a right to take, and was bound in duty and interest to take, a neutral position. Having taken it, I determined, as far as should depend upon me, to maintain it, with moderation, perseverance, and firmness.

The considerations which respect the right to hold this conduct, it is not necessary on this occasion to detail. I will only observe that, according to my understanding of the matter, that right, so far from being denied by any of the belligerent powers, has been virtually admitted by all.

The duty of holding a neutral conduct may be inferred, without anything more, from the obligation which justice and humanity impose on every nation, in cases in which it is free to act, to maintain inviolate the relations of peace and amity towards other nations.

The inducements of interest for observing that conduct will best be referred to your own reflections and experience. With me a predominant motive has been to endeavor to gain time to our country to settle and mature its yet recent institutions, and to progress without interruption to that degree of strength and consistency which is necessary to give it, humanly speaking, the command of its own fortunes.

Though, in reviewing the incidents of my administration, I am unconscious of intentional error, I am nevertheless too sensible of my defects not to think it probable that I may have committed many errors. Whatever they may be, I fervently beseech the Almighty to avert or mitigate the evils to which they may tend. I shall also carry with me the hope that my country will never cease to view them with indulgence; and that, after forty five years of my life dedicated to its service with an upright zeal, the faults of incompetent abilities will be consigned to oblivion, as myself must soon be to the mansions of rest.

Relying on its kindness in this as in other things, and actuated by that fervent love towards it, which is so natural to a man who views in it the native soil of himself and his progenitors for several generations, I anticipate with pleasing expectation that retreat in which I promise myself to realize, without alloy, the sweet enjoyment of partaking, in the midst of my fellow-citizens, the benign influence of good laws under a free government, the ever-favorite object of my heart, and the happy reward, as I trust, of our mutual cares, labors, and dangers.

United States 19th September, 1796

Geo. Washington

November Political Article Reference List

Updated Daily: Below you will find links to mostly conservative oriented articles or blog posts that I have read and find insightful or interesting in some way.

If you take the time to read some of them it should open your eyes to the reality of “The Swamp,” Main Stream/Propaganda Media bias and Fake News, The Progressive Movement and what Trump faces daily in his quest to Make America Great Again.” Think of it as solving a large puzzle, if you read enough stuff things begin to fall into place and you can see the big picture, hopefully. (Note: Article links added since the previous update are underlined.)

November 12, 2019

Alex Vindman Is Living, Breathing Proof That The Deep State Exists, And It Is Horribly Corrupt

Ten Reasons Why Impeachment Is Illegitimate

The People and the President

Democrats Went All-In on Schiff Impeachment and Now It’s Quickly Turning Into a Schiff Show

The Upsides of Bloomberg for the Left and the Right

Democrats Shift from ‘Quid Pro Quo’ to ‘Bribery’ and ‘Extortion’ Ahead of Public Impeachment Hearings

Jarrett: The Trump impeachment inquiry is already in big trouble. Here’s who Democrats have to thank

Triggered: Don Trump Jr. Resists the Resistance

IG Report Expected Before Thanksgiving, Will Contain ‘At Least Two Criminal Referrals,’ One is ‘Expected to be Comey’

Italian News Claims Spygate’s Joseph Mifsud was Kidnapped by Italians on Halloween in 2017 – Whereabouts Still Unknown!

How the Deep State Media Operate

Liberals, media claim Vindman fired from NSC, immediately bash Trump. Turns out it was completely false.

Our Education System Fosters American Self-Loathing

Why Trump is the Black Voters’ Clear Choice in 2020

Liberals Hate The Police

4 Feminist Lies That Are Making Women Miserable

November 11, 2019

Inside The War On Biden Ukraine Reporting

es: Transcripts Are ‘Devastating to the Democrats’

Why Trump Backers Should Be Thrilled by the Battleground Polls and Especially by the Democrat Polls

Alexander Vindman’s Lawyer Makes a Fool of Himself and It Shows His Coordination With Adam Schiff

Trump Delivers Powerful Address While Becoming First President To Attend NYC Veterans Day Parade

Democrats Are the Enemy of a DACA Fix

‘11,000 scientists’ warning of ‘climate emergency’ are just ‘11,000 random people’

DACA lands before the Supreme Court: Showdown over Trump’s bid to end ‘Dreamer’ program

Will Mollie Hemingway still have a job at Fox News after naming whistleblower Ciaramella’s on live TV Sunday?

YouTube and Facebook are erasing content with the whistleblower’s name

The Media Holds A Massive Double Standard About Naming Whistleblowers

Morning Greatness: Nikki Haley Says Tillerson and Kelly Resisted The Trump Agenda

Remembering the Veteran Down the Street

Why Democrats Are Wrong About Income Inequality In The United States

Chase Bank CEO’s “60 Minutes” Interview Should Have Democrats Panicking About 2020

Schiff: We Don’t Need No Stinking Whistleblower – Won’t Allow Him To Testify

No Safe Spaces: What Happens When Common Sense and Values Disappear

The Latest Surprise-Medical-Bills Surprise Is No Surprise – Patients Will Lose Under This Price Fixing Scheme

Lucky San Francisco: With Chesa Boudin as DA, good luck getting a cop when you want one

30 Years After The Fall Of The Berlin Wall, Socialism Is Staging A Comeback

November 10, 2019

The Looming ‘1984’ Election – 2020 is going to be a plebiscite on an American version of Orwell’s Nineteen-Eighty-Four

Will Durham Investigation Tank The Democrats Impeachment Efforts?

Has the Coup Already Happened? – We have an elite that does not accept the American idea of government

GLAAD: We Want ‘20% Of Series Regular Characters’ To Be ‘LGBTQ By 2025’

A New Yale Study Estimates 22.1 Million Illegal Aliens in US Today — More People Than the Population of Florida

President Trump. vs. “The Media”

Count on Big Media to Protect Anti-Trump Sources

Democrats Refuse All GOP Requests for Witnesses in Their Sham Investigation

Schiff Denies Nunes’ Request to Subpoena Ciaramella, Calls it Redundant and Unnecessary; But There is a Silver Lining

Big tech on trial

Transgenderism vs. Freedom of Expression

November 9, 2019

The GOP puts Schiff in impeachment checkmate with 8-person witness request

The Ukraine Scandal Spreads To The Obama Administration

ABC Outed Wrong Person, Steps on Worst Landmine Imaginable

Nikki Haley Dismisses Grounds for Impeachment and Triggers Never Trumpers

The unintended consequences of split roll for California Proposition 13 property taxes

Yet another attack on Proposition 13 – Property Transferred Between Parents & Children etc.

Republicans want Hunter Biden, Ukraine whistleblower as impeachment inquiry witnesses

Trump’s Triumph: On the Way to a Second Westphalia?

President Trump Bombshell: “I Caught the Swamp. I Caught Them All. Let’s See What Happens!”

Schiff Goes Full Stalin

Is Pelosi finally sick of the terrible damage Schiff is doing to her Democrat party?

I Am the Anonymous Whistleblower – Many examples over the years

Journalistic standards have had nothing to do with the truth for a long time

Three Years Since 2016 Election – DOW Reaches 111th All-Time High – Markets Up More than 50% – Largest Increase in History!

What the Mike Bloomberg candidacy really means

The Radicalizing of Eric Ciaramella – It starts at Yale and a professor of Arabic who romanticizes terrorism.

Corrupt Mueller Team Official Van Grack Is Now In Charge of DOJ’s FARA Unit Used to Spy on Republicans

The Week in Pictures: The Epstein Meme Edition

Is Lisa Page singing to Durham’s prosecutors?

November 8, 2019

‘Popular Vote’ Movement Would Shift Power to Big Cities, Experts Warn

New Documents Shed Light on REAL Ukraine Scandal

Kamala Harris’ Skin Color Is Not Why Her Presidential Bid Is Tanking

The curious timeline for taking down Trump goes way back to Aug. 15, 2016

Actual Insider Behind Epstein Leak Breaks Silence After ABC’s ‘Seek-and-Destroy’ Mission Against Bianco

DEVIN NUNES SENDS LETTER, DEMANDS SCHIFF TESTIFY as Part of House Impeachment Hearings

Democrats Printed Name of Suspected Whistleblower, Released to Public Without Realizing It

Alexander Vindman’s Testimony Appears to Confirm He Illegally Leaked to the Whistle-Blower Eric Ciaramella

Ukraine witness said Steele dossier was ‘rabbit hole’ and likely contained Russian ‘disinformation’

Speaker Pelosi Raises Stakes, Wants Bill Barr Arrested And Criminally Charged

California’s Housing Nightmare Is Only Getting Worse

The mesmerizing mediocrity of Trump’s opponents

The Democrats and CAIR

CODENAME “CHARLIE”: The So-Called Whistleblower

The Difference Between Schiff and Shinola – Shoe polish is more transparent

The Great Missing Topic Candidates Aren’t Talking About

How Warren Captured the White Left

California Taxpayers are on the Hook for Six-Figure Government Pensions

Liberalism Politics US Politics For some reason, Michael Bloomberg thinks he should be president

Why Drug Legalization And Hugs For Terrorists Won’t Solve The Border Crisis

Media frenzy over possible Bloomberg candidacy for Democrats’ presidential nomination reflects desperation over lame field

Democracy Dies in Darkness — Speak the Whistleblower’s Name

Who are these ‘11,000 Concerned Climate Change Scientists’? – And How Many Are Actually Qualified?

Obama’s Ukraine Ambassador Allegedly Lied Under Oath In Impeachment Inquiry, Congressman Suggests

Rich Lowry Makes A Clear And Compelling Defense Of Nationalism

Three Essential Firearms To Deal With Civil Unrest

November 7, 2019

A recent Washington Post piece exposes the rot behind the impeachment press

Donald Trump Jr. Calls the Rush Limbaugh Show

Adam Schiff Makes Up New Rules for Impeachment Inquiry; Restricts Republican Witness Questions

The Threat(s) of Chinese Nationalism – It is a powerful force that scares the Communist Party– and should scare us too

The Obama administration tried to partner with Hunter Biden’s Ukrainian gas firm but was blocked over corruption concerns

Yovanovitch communicated with Dem staffer on ‘delicate’ issue after complaint, emails show, despite her testimony

Limbaugh: The Trump Whistleblower’s Lawyer Admits It’s a Coup!

ABC And CBS Just Colluded To Fire An Epstein Whistleblower –The Hypocrisy Is Breathtaking

Pelosi Throws the Haymaker Punch That Will Cost Democrats the White House and Congress in 2020

The Next Generation of Americans Will Embrace Socialism If We Lose The ‘War on History’

ABC’s Ruthless Mole Hunt for Employee Who Leaked Epstein Bombshell Exposed in Chilling Report

Pension Bailouts Could Raise the National Debt by $7 Trillion

The Dow, S&P 500 and Nasdaq hit record levels after report China, U.S. agree to cancel tariffs in stages

CBS News fires staffer who had access to leaked Amy Robach audio when she worked at ABC News

‘The View’ Melts Down Over Donald Trump Jr. Visit – “The Booing Is F***ing Us Up”

The Russia Probe Was A Watergate-Like Breach of the Trump Campaign, Investigative Journalist Says

The Senate Must NOT Legitimize The House’s Sham Impeachment

Snopes Confirms Dems Tried to Impeach Every ELECTED GOP President Since Eisenhower

The reasons the Inspector General report has been delayed will delight Trump supporters

The Trump economy is really experiencing a middle-class boom — this data doesn’t lie

Ronan, Robach, and the Definition of ‘News’

CBS News fires staffer who had access to the leaked Amy Robach audio

Katie Pavlich Connects Dots Between ABC’s Epstein Cover-Up, George Stephanopoulos and Bill Clinton – All roads lead back to the Clintons…always

The Jeffrey Epstein Story Is A Giant Rats’ Nest That Needs Dogged Investigation To Find The Truth

History Has Shown That Socialism Is NOT the Cure

The Democrats’ Nomination is Hillary’s to Lose – Not as outlandish as you think

The Four Prosecutors Who Just Won Elections In Virginia Were All Backed By George Soros

Resistance (At All Costs): Kimberley Strassel’s Home Run

Donald Trump and The Art of Political Warfare

Plans by Warren and Sanders Neglect Logic, Math, and Honesty

The great Democrat impeachment confection starts to curdle

Tucker Carlson Shines Light on Corrupt Obama-Judge Amy Berman Jackson Who Should be Disbarred and Indicted

Never-ending Foreign Wars Are Keeping The United States From Fixing The Border Crisis

Columbia professor who fled communism RESIGNS, says the university is becoming full blown communistic

November 6, 2019

Small business ‘optimism’ at record high, up 160% under Trump

Mexico Massacre New Ammo for U.S. to Designate Cartels as Foreign Terrorist Organizations

Years Before Complaint, Whistleblower’s Lawyer Vowed to ‘Get Rid’ of Trump

35 Reasons Why You Should Move Away From California

The Sacramento Taxpayers President Warns of Prop. 13 Bait and Switch

DiGenova And Toensing On Barr’s ‘Hatchet Job’

An Impeachable Offense Is NOT Whatever the House Says It Is

The Democrats’ star witness shatters the ‘quid pro quo’ claim

Sondland revises testimony on quid pro quo

Democrats’ ‘Star Witness’ Admits He Wasn’t On Trump-Ukraine Call, His Sole Source Was NY Times

Trump Touts Success in Appointing Conservative Judges

‘The Coup has started,’ whistleblower’s attorney said in 2017 posts calling for impeachment

Adam Schiff Calls His First Public Witnesses and It Tells Us Everything

YouTube goes apoplectic over a doctor’s accurate comment on transgenders

Hey Hannity, here’s the real reason the polls are wrong

A Witness to Public Schools Brainwashing

Truckers protest California gig-work law that could make them employees

FBI admits (or concocts) mind-boggling mistake on notes taken on General Flynn interview that resulted in guilty plea

Who Can Stop Trump Now?

Alleged ‘Whistleblower’ Eric Ciaramella Worked Closely with Anti-Trump Dossier Hoaxer

14 Big Fat Tax Gimmicks Trying To Hide The Gargantuan Price Of Elizabeth Warren’s Health Plan

DOW Reaches 109th All-Time High Since 2016 Election – Obama and Bush Had NONE in their Entire First Term!

Three Cheers for Refugee Reduction

It’s Time For The United States To Wage War On Mexican Drug Cartels – Slaughter of an American family is the final straw

In a huge, shocking story, a career diplomat was fired

Florida Voters Stun NBC News By Saying They Now Support Trump ‘More Than Ever’

Impeaching America’s Future – Moving in the direction of South America

November 5, 2019

Hunter Biden’s Ukraine Gas Firm Urged Obama Admin To End Corruption Allegations, Report Says

Rand Paul teaches Republicans how to defend Trump

No, Sondland’s Revised Testimony Doesn’t Prove There Was a Quid Pro Quo

Contrapoints vs. Non-Binary Nonsense – A trans intellectual banished for questioning the value of “gender-neutral” language

Big Brother is using social media to crush freedom worldwide

The Crisis of Social Media

A Victory For the Forces of Good – Putting A Halt To Union Dues Skimming

Gingrich: Deaths of Americans in Mexican cartel shootout are a ‘wake-up call’

Trump offers to help Mexico ‘wipe’ drug cartels ‘off the face of the earth’ after murder of Americans

Leaked Insider Recording From ABC News Reveals Network Executives Killed Bombshell Story Implicating Jeffrey Epstein   . . . . . . . Click here for the video

Ukraine: the truth versus the Democrats’ narrative

The Trump Doctrine: Deterrence without Intervention?

Witch Hunt: Gregg Jarrett Scores Again

The Left-Right Divide Is About Reality Itself

The Worm Is Starting To Turn

Why the House won’t vote for impeachment

The Play-Nice approach of 2020 Democrats threatens to hand Trump a reelection advantage

The Devine Plan: A Soul-Restoring Movie For These Difficult Times

Welcome to ‘Hotel California’ – LA now boasts one of the largest unsheltered communities in the US

Should John F. Kennedy have been impeached for setting-up a back channel?

The Army Publishes a 16-Year Modernization Plan to Outpace China With a New Battle Concept

November 4, 2019

The Downfall of Conservatism, Inc. –  How Donald J. Trump made me rethink my Republican heroes

The Number of Democrats Showing Up at Trump Rallies Is Stunning

In 365 Days, It’s Weeks Like This One That Voters Will Remember

Brennan’s Spy? New Theories Emerge About Trump-Ukraine Whistleblower

House GOP to call ‘lying, leaking’ Schiff as ‘fact witness’

Pelosi’s impeachment rules guarantee a partisan circus

Jeffrey Epstein’s Death: The Plot Thickens

Impeachment Drama Is Fraught with Traps for Sane Observers

Pension costs in California are hitting home — hard

The Trump Economy

The Last Trusted Prosecutor in Washington

CIA, FBI Informant Stefan Halper Was Washington Post Source For Russiagate Smears

President Trump’s Foreign Policy Wisdom

Trump Is Derailing The Elite’s Gravy Train

Trump Immigration Policies Lead to Thousands of Mexican Migrants Giving Up on Asylum Claims: DHS

Impeach Away Democrats!

California conservatives are leaving the state for ‘redder pastures’

Pollsters: President Trump is expanding his base with the poor, urban, blacks, Latinos, and impeachment critics

It’s Unthinkable That One of the Democrats Could Be President

Nancy and Willie are warning Democrats

Has Elizabeth Warren Really Thought about Her Tax Plan?

What Should Trump Supporters Make Of The Latest Phony Impeachment Polling?

Gavin Newsom, Your California Carbon Offsets are Burning

Research Finds Conservatives Are More Happy, Generous, And Purposeful Than Liberals

November 3, 2019

FOX News Pushes Fake Impeachment Poll… 49% of Those Questioned were Democrats!

A Record Low Number of Americans Are Seeking Work

The Military-Intelligence Complex

Adam Schiff’s Impeachment Train to Nowhere

President Clinton Committed 11 Crimes for Which He Was Impeached – Trump Committed Nothing – What the Hell is Going On?

Suggested Amendments to Senate Rules for a Fair Impeachment Trial

Suddenly, Coincidences Involving the Whistleblower Abound

Former Czech Ambassador Bašta: CIA, FBI and Democrats Are Working Behind the Scenes to Remove President Trump

Trump-Ukraine Whistleblower Suddenly Won’t Testify; Lawyers Break Off Negotiations Amid New Revelations

Nancy Pelosi Warns That the Democrat Field Is so Far Left That Is Scares Even Her

OUTRAGEOUS: Mueller and Deep State DOJ Deny Allegations in Most Recent Response to General Flynn’s Attorneys

There Have Been Three Major Assaults on the Constitution Since 1973 and This One Is the Worst

Could Trump Derangement Syndrome Be a Good Thing?

Where’s the Mysterious Mifsud and Where Did He and His Associate/Lawyer Stephan Roh Obtain Their Millions?

Judge Grants Temporary Restraining Order Against Trump Health Care Rule for Immigrants

November 2, 2019

‘Medicare for All’ Proposes Economy-Crushing Taxes on Middle Class

CA Governor Newsom Names his Cabinet Secretary ‘Energy Czar?’

Justice: Antifa Thug Who Busted a Man’s Head Open Gets Nearly 6 Years in Prison

Willie Brown: Impeachment a winner for Democrats? Don’t bet on it

Doing the Impeachment Math – Are 20 Republican senators willing to commit political suicide to please Schumer, Pelosi, and Schiff?

Gregg Jarrett: So-called whistleblower is actually an ‘undercover informant and Dem operative’

How Did Democrats Get Here? – Democrats’ embrace of thuggery over democracy is not normal.

Smugglers are sawing through some of the new sections of Trump’s border wall

Trump: Do you think I would ‘say something improper’ with people listening?

So much for a quickie impeachment: Now Nancy Pelosi wants to expand their hearings beyond the Ukraine

Gingrich: Pelosi’s Halloween impeachment vote was an enormous strategic defeat – Let me explain

The Impeachment Inquiry Rules Are Skewed Heavily Against The President

The DoJ responds to General Flynn’s Lawyer

Kellyanne Conway was right about impeachment

The Deep State Meets to Congratulate Itself About the Russia Probe – An entire establishment living in deep denial

The Democrats’ Impeachment Charade is a Disaster for Them, Not the American People

Could the Ukraine phone call ‘whistleblower’ be facing indictment?

CRIMINAL DEEP STATE: Corrupt DOJ Admits FBI LOST AND DESTROYED Original 302 Report from Michael Flynn Interview

Trump Is Redeeming America from the Sins of the Federal Reserve

Impeachment, Nunc Pro Tunc – It’s a progressive Democrat pipe dream

Supreme Court Justice Neil Gorsuch makes understatement of the year: Americans face ‘challenges in civic understanding’

The Week in Pictures: Media Blowout Edition – LOL

Democrats Eat Trump’s Dust – One more reason for all their resentments

The Reserve Army of the GOP – The white working class and the Democrat nominee

California’s Gavin Newsom is now running scared

Trump Administration Proposes Rule Protecting Faith-Based Adoption Agencies

November 1, 2019

More Good News For Workers

Was There Actually Another Reason for Electricity Shutdowns in California?

The Democrats’ Trump Impeachment Push Is Ripping The State Department to Shreds

Limbaugh: Julie Kelly Lists All of Adam Schiff’s Failed Attempts to Get Trump

Trump-Ukraine Whistleblower Suddenly Won’t Testify; Lawyers Break Off Negotiations Amid New Revelations

Schiff Strategy Backfires When National Security Council Witness Tim Morrison Undercuts Multiple Democrat Narratives

Speaker Pelosi Is Worried About 2020 Candidates’ Policy Proposals

Steve Scalise Reveals All the Ways Adam Schiff Can Cheat in Impeachment Hearings

The Deep State Doesn’t Deny Editing Flynn’s Statement Before Charging Him

Lieutenant Colonel Who Worked With Schiff Witness Vindman Says He Verbally Reprimanded Him For ‘Bashing America’

Democrats’ Impeachment Inquiry Announces New Hire Andrei Vyshinsky – Esq., joins the inquisition team

Could Mitt Romney be the man to knock out Donald Trump?

Democrats Want to Limit Free Speech and Regain an Iron Grip on ‘The Narrative’

Representative Ratcliffe: Adam Schiff’s Problem Isn’t That He’s Biased, It’s That He’s Running A Corrupt Process

More non-Mexican migrants are being arrested at the border in San Diego than ever

High-tax New York in ‘death spiral,’ Florida Senator Rick Scott says

Governor Newsom throws California’s interior under the bus

California’s Prop 47 leads to rise in shoplifting, thefts, criminal activity across state

Tulsi Gabbard: The U.S. Government ‘Is Hiding The Truth’ About 9/11 Terror Attacks

The US Adds 128,000 Jobs as Hiring Remains Resilient Despite GM Strike

The impeachment Schiff show

Mark Levin Torches the Democrats in Scathing Monologue Following House Vote

‘Energized my base’: Trump says impeachment will backfire on Democrats

Faux whistleblower Eric Ciaramella: His parents must be so proud

Eric Ciaramella Reelects the President? – The Whistleblower Is Outed

‘Whistleblower’ Ciaramella May Be CIA Spy Planted in Trump White House Identified as “Charlie” in Strzok and Page Texts!

Climategate: Ten Years Later

Donald Trump Versus ‘The Interagency Consensus’

Alex Vindman’s Impeachment Testimony Completely Rested On His Personal Opinions

At the End of the Vote, Democrat Members Had to Coach Other Members ‘Not to Cheer’

The Media-Democrat Tantrum is a Fear Response

This ‘Impeachment’ Is Actually a Cover-Up To Protect Democrats

Impeachment Vote Will Cost These Democrats Their Seats – They ran as moderates in swing districts yet voted like radicals

A stunning confession from a Deep State member subverting our constitutional republic

October job creation comes in at 128,000, easily topping estimates even with GM auto strike

Why Private Big Tech Bias Is Just As Bad As Government Censorship

Leaving China Behind

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